|Roman Republican Coins and Books by Andrew McCabe
Roman Coins of Luceria and Canusium, arrangement M.H. Crawford, RRC, with comments
The purpose of this web-site is to provide illustrated examples of all the RRC varieties of the coins of Luceria (Lucera in modern Italy) and Canusium (Canosa in modern Italy), and thereby to provide a baseline for further study of the series. This presentation should help people to identify coins in this notoriously difficult series. The catalogue should be read alongside Roman Republican Coinage, Michael H. Crawford, Cambridge, 1974, to which the catalogue numbers refer.
The coin descriptions note characteristics of their designs which should serve as a basis for a future classification. For example, there are a number of coins which are described as having 'bulbous prowstems', which have a star engraved on the side of the prow, and which are of consistently heavy weight standard, are of a common engraving style, and all have thick flans. There is another group of Luceria L types, again of heavy weight, that are always struck on broad thin flans, and that have very different engraving style and design characteristics (for example, placement of mintmarks, shape of prow) when compared with the 'bulbous prowstem' group, but that have very close links to the coinage of the RRC 98 LT series. In a future reclassification of these coins, I would be minded to group coins together based on such characteristics. I have also noted many minor varieties of the coinage that were not specifically identified in RRC. In many cases these varieties can be subsumed under an existing RRC number. In other cases I have felt it necessary to introduce additional numbers, for example my new group RRC 97B, for types not included in RRC.
However the purpose of these web-pages is not (yet) to reclassify, but to present the coinage exactly as classified by Michael Crawford in RRC. This should be regarded as a baseline study.
Please refer to the main introduction for additional comments and photo credits.
Refer: RRC pp.189-190 (main entry); RRC p.21 (dating); RRC Appendix 145*; d'Ailly vol.ii, 729, 790; Sydenham 306-309; M.Bahrfeldt, Blätter für Münzfreunde 1930-33,679; Average weight noted in RRC: 22.5 grams excepting RRC 99/10.
The catalogue is formatted as a list of coin photos, with descriptions, in the order of Crawford RRC. I only comment when essential to illuminate varieties or missing types. The reader should consult Crawford RRC for additional information.
99/1a Luceria P As. Third phase. horizontal bar / Janus / P; I / Prow / P / ROMA. AM#10205-29, 28g87
The transition to the coinage with P, of lighter weight and distinctly difference styles, first seen in the RRC 97/22b P-L issue, marks the third phase in the Luceria coinage. The above As, RRC 99/1a, is in very fine style and struck on a well made flan. Note the wing on the prow, akin to some issues of the 'Italian civic mint' of the first phase coinage.
99/1b Luceria P As. Third phase. horizontal bar / Janus / P; horizontal bar / Prow / P / ROMA. Paris d'Ailly 3548, 12g08
The horizontal value mark As is of much cruder style: note the form of fighting platform, curved on top, and with a club that looks much like a leaf within. In addition to the main issue with mintmark P, at the end of this page there is a group of coins which I categorise under number 99B, which are clearly related to RRC 99 P in style, but bear no mintmark, or the mintmark L. Some bear similarities in style to this RRC 99/1b issue.
99/2a Luceria P Dextans. Third phase. P / Ceres; Victory in quadriga / ROMA / Soooo. AM#1334-16 ex RBW 15g94. No rev.mm.
The RRC 99 P issue includes Dextans and Quincunx, struck at the same weight standard as the other denominations, i.e. to an As of about 22 grams. There are three varieties of Dextantes - this one has a mintmark only on the obverse. These are the last issues of these denominations under the Roman Republic, although other curious denominations - Dodrans or 9 Unciae and Bes or 8 Unciae - appear in the second century BC.
99/2b Luceria P Dextans. Third phase. P / Ceres; Victory in quadriga / ROMA, P / Soooo. Paris d'Ailly 3554, 12g51. Rev.mm in field at right.
Reverse mintmark is in the main field under the quadriga, to the right of ROMA.
99/2c Luceria P Dextans. Third phase. P / Ceres; Victory in quadriga / ROMA / Soooo / P. Paris d'Ailly 3552, 14g31. Rev.mm under exergue value mark.
Reverse mintmark in exergue, under the value mark Soooo.
99/3 Luceria P Semis. Third phase. S / Saturn / P; P, S / Prow / ROMA. BM GLC 99.3.1, 11g74. Unusual rev.mm place, above prow at left.
This Semis has another unsual mintmark placement, this time above the prow to the left.
99/4 Luceria P Quincunx. Third phase. P / Apollo; Dioscuri / ROMA / ooooo. AM#0982-74, 7g43
The Quincunx only has a mintmark on the obverse.
99/5, Luceria 2nd-P-series, Minerva P Prow P, AM#1032-69, Triens 6g94
99/6 Luceria P Quadrans. Third phase. ooo, P / Hercules; ROMA / Prow / P / ooo. AM#10189-55, 5g52
Note obverse mintmark location, under the value mark behind the head. The reverse mintmark is just visible before the prow.
99/7 Luceria P Sextans. Third phase. oo / Mercury / P; ROMA / Prow / oPo. AM#0983-60, Sextans 6g02
Mintmarks below the head and between the value mark oPo. Contrast with the 97B/2 P-L Sextantes, at the end of the RRC 97 page.
99/7 var. Luceria P Sextans. Third phase. oo / Mercury / P; ROMA / Prow / P / oo. RR 5g44. Rev.mm variety not in RRC. Style is also odd.
Unpublished variant with reverse mintmark before the prow. This coin is in the style of the RRC 99/1b horozontal value mark As, and of some of the 99B no-mintmark issues.
99/8a Luceria P Uncia. Third phase. o / Roma; ROMA / Prow / Po. RR 2g93
99/8b Luceria P Uncia. Third phase. o / Roma; ROMA / Prow / oP. AM#09257-26, 2g60
99/9 var. Luceria P Semuncia. Third phase. Mercury; ROMA / Prow / SP. Paris d'Ailly 3592, 1g75. The RRC cited A3590, rev.mm sigma-P, is very worn. SP is clear on A3592.
The listing for RRC 99/9 indicates mintmark ΣP. I show two varieties of RRC 99/9. This one appears to have mintmark SP (rather than ΣP). The cited example in RRC, Paris A3590, does not show a clear Σ: a combination of die-wear and/or coin wear makes it unclear what the first letter is.
99/9 var. Luceria P Semuncia. Third phase. Mercury; ROMA / Prow / P / sigma. RR 1g75. Unpublished with P before prow.
This variety has a P before the prow, and what may be Σ under the prow.
99/10 Luceria P As. Fourth phase. Janus; I / Prow / P / ROMA. Apparent P before prow. Paris d’Ailly 3234, 7g01. Incorrectly cited and illustrated as RRC 97/28 but the types were switched in RRC.
See matching note under RRC 97/28. This coin is illustrated in RRC pl.XVIII,13 as RRC 99/28. It appears to have a P mintmark before the prow but no mintmark on the obverse. The illustrated RRC 99/10 on RRC pl.XIX,14 appears to have an L mintmark under the obverse head. So it appears the records for the two coins were switched in the preparation of RRC. This corrects the record. I separately note that I have not yet seen any other lightweight As with a mintmark, neither P nor L.
99/10 var. Luceria P As. Fourth phase. Janus; I / Prow / ROMA. No mintmark but upward gaze of Janus in style of P coinage. RR 7g65
This lightweight As is evidently in the style of the P coinage - note the upward gaze and the form of the prow with its relatively narrow prowstem - but has no mintmark. With a weight of 7.65 grams it is heavy as compared with the great majority of light weight Asses, which generally weigh about 3 to 4 grams, and of excellent style, although small in diameter.
99B/1 Luceria anonymous As. Irregular mint, third phase. Janus / double-slanted lines under; I / Prow / ROMA. AM#0888-20, 19g80. Irregular obverse, odd mintmark.
My RRC 99B group includes types with no mintmark or with mintmark L, and with design characteristics similar to the coinage with P. In many cases the styles are very similar to the RRC 99/1b As illustrated above, or to the variant RRC 99/7 Sextans with P before prow. Because a full range of denominations exists, As through Sextans, in two different but related styles, and of proper weight for issues of RRC 99 P, I am convinced that all these coins are of official issue and that these are either the last regular issues of the Luceria mint, or are the issues of a related field mint - in which case the RRC 99/1b As and the variant RRC 99/7 Sextans should also be assigned to that mint. In my forthcoming essay on the Anonymous Bronzes of the Roman Republic, these irregular looking issues are included under my "Group F2 Related RRC 97 L and RRC 99 P. Irregular Luceria reverses with curved lines."
99B/1 Luceria L As. Irregular mint, third phase. slanted bar / Janus / L; slanted I / Prow / ROMA. RBW 30g87. Slanted obv. value mark, erratic rev. in style.
Another example of irregular style, in this case with an L mintmark under the obverse head.
99B/2 Luceria anonymous Semis. Irregular mint, third phase. Saturn; S / Prow / ROMA, no mintmark. Paris d'Ailly 3254, 10g60. Luceria prow, odd rev, no mm.
This style Semis is certainly related to the first of the two Asses illustrated above (that weighing 19.8 grams). Note the curves on the prow. This type is illustrated in RRC, pl.X,23, as a variant to RRC 56/3. No mintmark.
99/B3 Luceria anonymous Triens. Irregular mint, third phase. oooo / Minerva; ROMA / Prow / oooo, no mintmark. RBW, 6g83. Style related to RRC 99 P, no mm.
The Triens is the most common denomination in this group 99B. No mintmark.
99/B5 Luceria anonymous Sextans. Irregular mint, third phase. oo / Mercury; ROMA / Prow / oo, no mintmark. EBP Barletta, 4g99. Style related to RRC 99 P, no mm.
This was reported as being found near Barletta, a city near Canosa / Canusium. No mnitmark. This coin is evidently in the style of RRC 99 P.
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See my rarity estimates for Roman Republican Bronzes: Roman Republic Bronze Rarities..